DISSERTATION

METHODOLOGY FOR RESEARCH

1.0. Research’s Meaning

The term “research” has a wide range of meanings in common speech, making it a befuddling term for students, particularly graduate students, who must learn to use it in a more focused, precise sense. Students hear the term “research” used in a number of contexts from elementary school through college. In some cases, the term connotes gathering information or making notes before producing a well-documented paper. In other cases, it refers to the act of educating oneself about something one does not know, such as through searching through accessible sources to find a piece of knowledge. The term is sometimes used by merchandisers to denote the finding of a new product.

Merchandisers may exploit the term to imply the discovery of a revolutionary product when, in fact, an existing product has significantly tweaked to improve its sales appeal. All of these tasks labelled “research,” but they are better described as “knowledge gathering,” “library skills,” “documentation,” “self-enlightenment,” or “a catchy sales pitch.”

The word “research” has a mystical aura about it. It conjures up images of an activity that is somehow elite and separate from regular life for many people. Researchers are commonly stereotyped as distant individuals who work alone in laboratories, intellectual libraries, or ivory towers of huge colleges. The general public is often ignorant of what academics do on a daily basis or how their work affects people’s overall quality of life.The term “research” refers to a search for information. A scholarly and systematic search for relevant knowledge on a given topic can also be defined as research. Research is, in fact, a form of scientific examination.

According to the Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, research is defined as “a diligent investigation or inquiry, particularly through the quest for new facts in any discipline of knowledge.” Research, according to Redman and Mory, is a “systematised effort to gather new knowledge.” Some people see research as a movement, one that takes them from the known to the unknown. It is, in fact, a journey of discovery. When the unknown confronts us, we wonder, and our inquisitiveness leads us to delve and investigate.Research is a term that should be used in a technical sense because it is an academic activity.

According to Clifford Woody, research entails defining and redefining problems, formulating hypotheses or suggested solutions, collecting, organising, and evaluating data, deducing and arriving at conclusions, and finally carefully testing the conclusions to see if they fit the formulating hypothesis. In the Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences, D. Slesinger and M. Stephenson define research as “the manipulation of things, concepts, or symbols for the purpose of generalising to extend, correct, or verify knowledge.”whether that knowledge is useful in the development of theory or the practise of an art

As a result, research is a unique contribution to the current body of knowledge that contributes to its growth. It is the search for truth by research, observation, comparison, and experimentation. In a nutshell, research is the pursuit of information through an objective and systematic approach of locating a solution to a problem. Research is also the systematic approach to generalization and the construction of a theory. As a result, the term “research” refers to a systematic method that includes stating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting facts or data, analyzing the facts, and reaching certain conclusions, either in the form of solutions to the problem at hand or generalizations for some other problem. The goal of this chapter is to refute common research myths and misconceptions. We’ll go over what research isn’t and then what it is on the following chapters.

1.0.1. What Isn’t Research?

We’ve suggested that the term “research” has become so common in ordinary discourse that few people understand what it really means. Here are a few assertions that describe what research isn’t. Each statement is accompanied by an example that exemplifies a frequent misunderstanding about research.

  1. Research is more than just acquiring data. ‘The instructor sent us to the library today to do research, and I learned a lot about black holes,’ a sixth-grader says to her parents when she gets home from school. For this student, research entails a trip to the library to gather some information. This may be knowledge gathering or gaining reference skills, but it’s not what the teacher called it.
  2. Research is more than just moving data from one place to another. A college student reads many articles about William Shakespeare’s mystery “Dark Lady” in his sonnets and then produces a “research report” explaining various experts’ theories about who she might have been. Despite the fact that the student engages in some of the tasks associated with formal research— gathering information, structuring it in a certain way for presentation to others, properly citing claims, and so on—these actions do not add up to a legitimate research paper. The student has overlooked the most important aspect of research: data interpretation. The student says nothing in the report that says, “These data that I have accumulated seem to imply this about the Dark Lady. “The facts are never interpreted or inferences drawn by the pupil. The mere accumulation of facts, presented with reference citations and ordered in a logical sequence—no matter how polished and appealing the format—misses true research by a hair. This pupil would have moved from one world to another if he had gone just a little further: from the realm of mere transportation of facts to the world of interpretation of facts. The distinction between information transfer and true study, which is crucial for rookie researchers to comprehend, is the difference between the two worlds.. The distinction between information transfer and true study, which is crucial for rookie researchers to comprehend, is the difference between the two worlds. Unfortunately, many students believe that research consists of seeking up a few facts and presenting them in a written report with references. Fact transcription, fact organization, or fact summarizing are more accurate terms for this type of operation.
  3. Research is more than just looking for information. The house on the other side of the street is for sale. You’re thinking about buying it, so you phone your realtor to see how much your current property would sell for. The realtor informs you, “I’ll have to perform some study to ascertain the fair market worth of your house.” What the realtor refers to as “doing some research” entails evaluating information on recent sales of properties similar to yours; this information will aid the realtor in determining a fair asking price for your present home. Such an endeavour entails nothing more than combing through files to learn what the realtor didn’t know before. Rummaging, whether in one’s own records or at a public or college library.

1.0.2. What exactly is research?

Research is a systematic method of gathering, evaluating, and interpreting data in order to get a better knowledge of a topic that interests or concerns us. When collecting and interpreting data to solve tiny problems in daily life, people frequently employ a systematic approach. Here, however, we concentrate on formal study, that is, research in which we set out to improve our understanding of a phenomenon and intend to share what we learn with the rest of the scientific community.

Despite the fact that research projects vary in complexity and duration, they all share eight common characteristics:

  1. A question or an issue is the starting point for research.
  2. Research necessitates a well-defined purpose.
  3. Research need a precise strategy for moving forward.
  4. In most cases, research separates the main problem into more manageable subproblems.
  5. The unique research challenge, question, or hypothesis directs the investigation.
  6. Certain important assumptions are accepted in research.
  7. Research necessitates the gathering and analysis of facts in order to solve the problem that prompted the study.
  8. Research is cyclical or, more precisely, helical by nature.

Each of these features is explored in turn so that you can gain a better understanding of what formal research entails.

  1. A question or an issue is the starting point for research. There are many unanswered issues and unsolved problems in the world. We see things that make us wonder, hypothesise, and ask questions everywhere we go. We strike the first spark by asking questions, which sets off a chain reaction that leads to the research process. The beginning of research is a curious mind; as one prominent tabloid puts it, “Inquiring minds want to know!”

Take a look around you. Consider the following unresolved circumstances that prompt these inquiries: What is the nature of such-and-such a situation? Why does such-and-such a thing happen? What exactly does it all imply? These are common queries. When you have questions like these, you need to do some study. We’ll go over the research problem in greater detail. The issue, as well as its statement, They are significant because they are the starting point for formal study.

  1. Research necessitates a well-defined purpose. It’s crucial to have a clear, unambiguous definition of the problem. This statement is an intellectual honesty test: The research’s final purpose must be stated in a grammatically correct language that properly and precisely answers the question, “What is the goal of your research?”

What problem are you trying to solve?

You’ll have a decent understanding of what you need to do if you express your goal in clear, precise terms, and you’ll be able to target your efforts accordingly.

  1. Research need a precise strategy for moving forward. Research isn’t a blind foray into the unknown in the hopes of stumbling onto the information needed to answer the question at hand. It is, instead, a meticulously planned journey schedule.instead, a well planned itinerary describing the path you aim to travel to reach your final destination—your study objective. Take a look at this book’s subtitle: Practical Research: Planning and Design. The last three words are the most significant. Researchers purposefully prepare their overall study strategy and specific research methodologies to collect data relevant to their research subject. Different designs and methodologies will be more or less acceptable depending on the study subject.As a result, in addition to determining your research’s specific purpose, you must also determine how you want to achieve it. You can’t plan and create your strategy after you’re knee-deep in the project. Much can be chosen at the early stages of a research project: What happened to the data? Is there any existing data that relates to the research problem? Are you likely to have access to the data if it exists? And after you get access to the information, what will you do with it once you have it? We could go on forever. Such inquiries just serve as a reminder that planning and design cannot be postponed. Each of the above-mentioned questions, as well as many more, must be answered.
  1. In most cases, research separates the main problem into more manageable subproblems. Breaking down a core research challenge into multiple subproblems that, when solved, would answer the main problem is typically helpful from a design aspect.

We employ an approach in everyday life to break down major difficulties into small, easily manageable subproblems. Assume you need to go from your hometown to a town 50 miles away. Your main objective is to go from one place to another as quickly as possible. However, you quickly see that the problem made up of multiple subproblems:

The main issue is getting from Town A to Town B. Subproblems: 1. Which path is the shortest?

  1. How far am I going to go on the highway?
  2. When exiting the highway, which exit should I take?

What appears a single question broken down into at least three sub-questions, each of which must answered before the main question answered.

So it is with the majority of research issues. When a researcher examines the main topic closely, he or she frequently discovers interesting subproblems. By addressing each individual,

The researcher will be able to more readily handle the major problem as a result of the subproblems. Researchers’ research projects might become tedious and difficult to manage if they don’t take the time or trouble to isolate the little problems within the big problem. The unique research challenge, question, or hypothesis directs the investigation. The researcher usually generates one or more hypotheses about what he or she might discover after stating the problem and its subproblems. A logical supposition, a plausible guess, or an educated conjecture is what a hypothesis is. It offers a speculative explanation for a phenomenon that is being investigated. It may help you think about potential sources of information that can help you solve one or more subproblems and, in turn, the main research topic.

5. Hypotheses limited to the realm of science. They are constant and repeated aspects of daily existence. They illustrate how the human mind works in its natural state. Something occurs. You make a series of attempts to account for the reason of the incident right away. A number of reasonable estimates You are hypothesising by doing so. Let’s look at an example of a common occurrence: You arrive home late at night, enter the front door, and reach inside for the switch that illuminates a nearby table lamp. The switch is discovered by your fingers. You turn it over. There is no light. You begin to form a series of logical guesses—hypotheses—to explain the lamp’s failure at this point:

  1. The light bulb has gone out.
  2. The bulb not connected to a power source.
  3. The electrical service disrupted by a late-afternoon thunderstorm.
  4. The wiring connecting the lamp to the wall outlet is faulty.
  5. You haven’t paid your electric bill in a long time.

Each of these hypotheses suggests a path you could take to gather knowledge that could help you solve the problem of the broken lamp. Now you’re on the hunt for data to figure out whether hypothesis is accurate. To put it another way, you’re looking for data that will support one of your hypotheses while allowing you to dismiss others.

  1. You go out to your car, get a flashlight, and look for a new bulb to replace it with. The lamp does not turn on. (The first hypothesis is ruled out.)
  2. You check the wall outlet and notice that the lamp is plugged in. (The second hypothesis is ruled out.)
  3. You take a peek around your neighbourhood. Everyone has access to electricity. (The third hypothesis is ruled out.)
  4. You return home and unplug the lamp from the electrical outlet by lifting the cord.
  5. Certain important assumptions are accepted in research. Assumptions in research are analogous to axioms in geometry—self-evident truths that are the sine qua non of inquiry. The assumptions must be correct, or the research will be useless. As a result, careful researchers—certainly those conducting research in an academic setting—present a declaration of their assumptions as the foundation upon which their research must be built. It is critical that others know what you believe to be true about your topic during your own study. If one is to assess the situation.
  1. If you want to improve the quality of your research, you’ll need to understand what you consider to be fundamental to the study’s existence.

An illustration may help to clarify the topic. Consider the question of whether students learn the distinctive grammatical structures of a language faster if they study only one foreign language at a time or two foreign languages at the same time. What assumptions would be at the root of a problem like this? At the very least, the researcher must assume:

The study’s teachers are qualified to teach the language or languages in issue and have a thorough understanding of the grammatical structures of the language(s) they are instructing.

The students who are participating in the study are capable of mastering the distinctive grammatical structures of the language(s) they are learning.

The languages chosen for the study have enough distinct grammatical structures for students to learn to recognise them.

A hypothesis is a forecast that may or may supported by the facts, whereas an assumption is a condition that assumed true and without which the research effort useless. In the Einstein example, we assume that the scientists who went to monitor the star’s movement were

light were capable of doing so, and that their sensors were sensitive enough to detect the small deviation induced by the gravitational pull of the sun.

Assumptions are generally so self-evident that a researcher may feel they don’t need to be mentioned. Almost all study, for example, is based on two assumptions:

The phenomenon under consideration is somewhat predictable and lawful; it is not made up entirely of random events. (dissertation vs thesis)

The patterns observed in the phenomenon explained by certain cause-and-effect linkages. Aside from such fundamental concepts, careful researchers describe their assumptions so that others reviewing the study effort can assess it based on their own assumptions. It is preferable for a novice researcher to be overly explicit than to take too much for granted.

  1. Research necessitates the gathering and analysis of facts in order to solve the problem that prompted the study. After a researcher has isolated the problem, subdivided it into relevant subproblems, posed legitimate questions or hypotheses, and identified the fundamental assumptions that underpin the entire effort, the researcher can move on to the next step.

The next step is to gather any relevant data and organise it in a meaningful fashion so that it interpreted.

Events, observations, and measurements are nothing more than events, observations, and measurements in and of themselves. The relevance of the data is determined by how the researcher interprets it. Data that evaluated by the human mind is useless in research: it can’t assist us answer the questions we’ve set.

However, researchers must acknowledge and accept the subjective and dynamic nature of interpretation. Consider the numerous novels written about US President John F. Kennedy’s assassination. Different historians have looked at the same events, and one may interpret them one way while another comes to a completely different conclusion. Which is the correct answer? Maybe neither of them is; maybe neither of them is. Both may have simply presented new issues for historians to address. Different minds interpret the same data in a variety of ways.

We used to think that clocks and yardsticks measured time and space, respectively. They still do in certain ways. We also assumed that time and space were distinct concepts. Then there was Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Time and space fused into a single idea known as the time–space continuum. What exactly is the difference between the old and new perspectives? The manner in which we consider or interpret the same information. The way we view time and space has changed, but the reality of time and space have not.

Any research project’s approach is what underpins and unifies it. The research methodology directs the entire endeavour: it controls the study, dictates how the data are collected, arranges them in logical relationships, establishes a method for refining and synthesising them, suggests a method for bringing the hidden meanings of the data to light, and finally yields one or more conclusions that lead to knowledge expansion. As a result, research technique serves two fundamental purposes:

  1. To direct and control the data collection process.
  2. To collect data and extract meaning from it after it acquired.

The second of these functions is what we mean when we say “data interpretation.”

Data needs interpreted. However, no guideline, formula, or algorithm can guarantee that the researcher will arrive at the proper conclusion. Interpretation is inherently subjective: it is wholly dependent on the researcher’s hypotheses, assumptions, and logical reasoning. In later chapters, we’ll go over a few more ways to organise and evaluate data that can be useful.

Consider how we started this chapter. We indicated that some activities could not be classified as research. You can see where I’m going with this.

why. None of these tasks require the researcher to make any inferences or interpretations based on the data.

  1. Research is cyclical or, more precisely, helical by nature. The study procedure is simple and follows a cycle. It proceeds in a logical, developmental order:

a. A perplexed mind examines a situation and wonders, “Why?” What went wrong? Why is that? (Research has a subjective beginning.)
b. A single question formalised as a problem. (This is the obvious start of inquiry.)
c. The problem broken down into a number of smaller, more focused subproblems.

c. Preliminary data that appears relevant to the situation gathered.

c. The information appears to point to a possible solution to the problem. A guess made, followed by the formation of a hypothesis or guiding question.
f. Data gathered in a more organised manner.

g. The data set analysed and interpreted.

h. A discovery made, and a conclusion reached.

i. The data either supports or refutes the preliminary hypothesis; the inquiry either answered (partially or totally) or not answered.
j. The cycle is over.

Figure’s nicely closed circle, however, is deceiving. Rarely is research conclusive. In a more realistic sense, the research cycle hought of as a helix, or spiral, of research. When investigating a new region, new difficulties emerge that must addressed, and the process restarted. More research leads to even more research.

Also visit: PROPOSAL FOR RESEARCH OUTLINE

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